Sunday, May 24, 2020

African Americans During The Civil War Essay - 2121 Words

With the various ways slavery was spread throughout the geography of the United States, these variations formed different cultures and conflicting laws on slavery. Due to inconsistent systems of slavery, it resulted in the Civil War, dividing the North and the South over the issues of slavery. In the end of the Civil War, many individuals with every sense of positive intentions gave opportunities and support to freed slaves developing into beneficial members for the nation. The United States came together as a nation to solve the issues of slavery, freedom, and the reorganization problems particular to African Americans. It is seen throughout our history all efforts to solve these issues but sadly African Americans still face many of the these problems today. These problems and issues of the 20th century needed to be solved by the leadership of African Americans, for their African American community. W.E.B Du Bois is a tremendous example of an African American leader for what was bes t for the United States at that time. The root cause of the problems and issues that faced African Americans from the beginning of the Reconstruction Period well into the 20th century â€Å"is the problem of the color-line, -the relation of the darker to the lighter races of men in Asia and Africa, in America and the islands of the sea† (W.E.B. Du Bois, The Souls of the Black Folk, 1903). The most obvious root cause for racism problems and issues African Americans face is white supremacy.Show MoreRelatedAfrican Americans During The Civil War1211 Words   |  5 PagesAfter the Civil War, the United States underwent a period of reconstruction. From the time of 1877 to 1890, the US economy grew exponentially, wealthy business owners like Rockefeller and Vanderbilt built American cities and railroads, and immigrants from all over the world flooded into the country. However, during this period America also faced great amount of poverty, terrible working conditions, mass political corruptions, and a destruction of civi l rights for African Americans, women, and immigrantsRead MoreAfrican Americans During The Civil War844 Words   |  4 PagesOver the years, the African American race has greatly evolved from having a lack of individual freedom to having their own sense of individuality. There have been many different events in America that has played some part in the evolution of the black race. After the Civil War, most of the races in America were seen to have separate freedom, but as the years progress African Americans were one of the many to stand up and obtain their individuality. In the process of obtaining individual freedomRead MoreAfrican Americans During The Civil War1434 Words   |  6 PagesMany African-Americans faced huge struggles years after the civil war. Their journey for racial equality began during the Reconstruction Era. The Civil War gave slaves freedom, a new set of huge challenges were put into play in the South. Under President Andrew Johnson, there were many new south ern state legislatures that passed â€Å"black codes† to control most of the labor and behavior of the former slaves. Outrage in the North over these restrictive codes destroyed support for presidential reconstructionRead MoreAfrican Americans During The Civil War1423 Words   |  6 PagesAfrican Americans were a very important addition to the American Civil War such as fighting and spying for both the north and the south sides. The American Civil War was a war fought in the United States between the North and South states. The war was from 1861-1865 and was because the South wanted to establish itself as a separate nation. The northern states were called the Union and the southern states were called the Confederate. Between the north and south states were the Border States, whichRead MoreAfrican American During The Civil War1235 Words   |  5 Pages African Americans Suffered During the Civil War Allison Wessels English 11- Period 5 Mrs. Blomme March 11, 2016 African American Suffered During the Civil War Outline: Thesis Statement: African American soldiers fighting in the Civil War. Introduction Introduce main points State thesis statement History of slavery Life of an African American slave Treatment Living conditions Work responsibilities African American soldiers Treatment of African American soldiers vs.Read MoreAfrican Americans During The Civil War1170 Words   |  5 PagesIn 1865, when the civil war ended in America and slavery was abolished, the African American population in the South faced many challenges related to their new found freedom. Following the post-Civil War Reconstruction period, white supremacy resurfaced in the South (AE Television, 2015). Beginning in the early 1900s through 1970 there was a mass exodus of African American s from the South to the North in America. Although some African American s were known to have moved from the South as earlyRead MoreAfrican Americans During The Civil War995 Words   |  4 Pagesbefore the Civil War, so it was a constant battle between African Americans and Whites. Antebellum time period focus on the differences between people in the south and the north. People who wanted slavery to continue, because it was profitable and people who wanted it to end. More simply, whites in the sou th did not want slavery to end, because it was a business that allowed them to make money off of other people s labor. While people in the north were more open to allow African Americans have moreRead MoreAfrican Americans During The Civil War Essay1319 Words   |  6 Pagesamong young African American men with little schooling. Radical changes in crime control and sentencing polices led to an unprecedented buildup of the United States prison population over the last thirty years. African Americans comprise a disproportionate percentage of the individuals imprisoned in State correctional institutions across the United States. . There are 5 main reasons as to why African Americans repeatedly go to prison. These reasons are racial discrimination, the war on drugs, trafficRead MoreAfrican Americans During The Civil War2079 Words   |  9 PagesAfrican Americans in the Civil War Everyday, people wake up and take it for granted. Just the simple and small things in life, people don’t seem to really appreciate. They tend to be ungrateful for the things that have been basically given to them. Many people of today do not realize the severity of how hard it was to get to this point in history. African Americans have had to face very strenuous times in order to make this world a better place. African Americans faced difficult times during theRead MoreAfrican American Soldiers During The Civil War902 Words   |  4 PagesMcCurry English 10 10 April 2015 African American Soldiers African-Americans served in the Civil War on both the Union and Confederate sides. In the Union Army, over 179,000 African American men served in over 160 units. More served with both the Union and Confederate units. This includes both northern free African Americans and runaway slaves from the South who enlisted to fight. By 1865, the South allowed slaves to enlist, but very few actually did. During the Civil War, blacks were treated like trash

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

John Locke, Hobbes, And Nietzsche Theories - 1722 Words

The topic of a zombie apocalypse has come up more often than before within the past decade due to many TV showings, films and video games exposing the idea of a zombie epidemic. It is nothing new, a common topic of discussion with friends on a weekend and even debated in lectures on the hypothetical theory of this event ever occurring. Since discussing the aftermath of the social and political standings is a grey area to think about, I have chosen to conduct a comparison and analysis in regards to the likelihood of this situation occurring using Locke, Hobbes, and Nietzsche theories. The first thinker, John Locke, may very well have the closest connection to the idea and understanding of a living threat to the social order. He â€Å"lived in circumstances that forced on him an awareness of the genuine possibility of political chaos and social disintegration† (Wright). His experiences helped him in introducing the idea of a â€Å"state of nature† with relation to the way in which self-defense and laws are implemented. With simply being human, you are privileged with rights and obligations. The â€Å"State of nature has a law of nature to govern it, which obliges every one: and reason, which is that law, teaches all mankind . . . that being all equal and independent, no one ought to harm another in his life, health, liberty, or possessions†(Wright). Locke identified forms of punishment as being equal to the crime for anything beyond that would be a crime in itself. He states that justShow MoreRelatedModern Political Theory : Hobbes And Locke s Difference Essay1544 Words   |  7 Pages Modern Political Theory Hobbes’s and Locke’s Difference in Theories of State (#2) Ramon Roque Jr. Political Science 3341-01 Fall 2016 â€Æ' Modern Political Theory Hobbes’s and Locke’s Difference in Theories of State Thomas Hobbes and John Locke are among the greatest philosophers whose political thoughts have laid down the foundations of modern politics. It’s possible to offer explanation in various endeavors that affect the humans in the modern setting using various concepts and thoughts as presentedRead MoreA Statement Of The State Of Nature2003 Words   |  9 Pagestoday among political interactions. The most rival views that contest Hobbes view of human nature come from Jean-Jacques Rousseau and John Locke. I will attempt to address each of their views of human nature determine which argument for human nature has more merit. Thus, I will argue that Hobbes argument for the state of nature being a state of war is insufficient and cannot address all circumstances, and for this a second theory of human nature must be introduced that has more merit towards the trueRead MoreAn Essay on Social Contract Theory3139 Words   |  13 PagesSOCIAL CONTRACT THEORY Social contract theory (or contractarianism) is a concept used in philosophy, political science and sociology to denote an implicit agreement within a state regarding the rights and responsibilities of the state and its citizens, or more generally a similar concord between a group and its members, or between individuals. All members within a society are assumed to agree to the terms of the social contract by their choice to stay within the society without violating the contract;Read MoreAn Essay on Social Contract Theory3151 Words   |  13 PagesSOCIAL CONTRACT THEORY Social contract theory (or contractarianism) is a concept used in philosophy, political science and sociology to denote an implicit agreement within a state regarding the rights and responsibilities of the state and its citizens, or more generally a similar concord between a group and its members, or between individuals. All members within a society are assumed to agree to the terms of the social contract by their choice to stay within the society without violating the contract;Read MoreThe Universal Declaration Of Human Rights3323 Words   |  14 Pagesinternational treaties. Even so, human rights violations occur on an almost daily basis in countries around the world. The term seems to be at the forefront of contemporary political discourses, with its meaning at most times remaining unclear. In theory, human rights serve the sole purpose of protecting the inherent dignity of all representatives of the human family (UDHR 1948) However, there is much disagreement when it comes to theoretically justifying that each human being has rights by virtueRead MoreBranches of Philosophy8343 Words   |  34 Pagesphilosophy [pic] [pic] John Locke Modern philosophy begins with the revival of skepticism and the rise of modern physical science. Philosophy in this period centers on the relation between experience and reality, the ultimate origin of knowledge, the nature of the mind and its relation to the body, the implications of the new natural sciences for free will and God, and the emergence of a secular basis for moral and political philosophy. Canonical figures include Hobbes, Descartes, Locke, Spinoza, LeibnizRead MoreKants Theory of Enlightenment5012 Words   |  21 Pagestimid and usually frightens them away from any further attempt†.  Therefore, it is difficult for any individual to separate himself from the minority which has become natural to him. Only a few are capable of making this leap (possible relation to Nietzsche and the will to power?) The public can only achieve enlightenment slowly.  A revolution may well bring about a falling off of personal despotism and of avaricious or tyranical oppression, but never a true reform in one’s way of thinking; insteadRead MoreCleanth Brookss Essay Irony as a Principle of Structure9125 Words   |  37 Pagescultural and critical theory library Open source archive of ebooks, texts, videos, documentary films and podcasts Pages * Home * List of major critical theorists * What is Critical theory ? * What is Frankfurt School ? * Support Critical Theory Library * Contact This Blog This Blog  Ã‚  Ã‚   |    | ------------------------------------------------- Top of Form Bottom of Form    Home  » texts  » History amp; Class Consciousness: Preface by Georg Lukà ¡cs (1923) Thursday, February 3, 2011Read MoreOrganisational Theory230255 Words   |  922 Pages. Organization Theory Challenges and Perspectives John McAuley, Joanne Duberley and Phil Johnson . This book is, to my knowledge, the most comprehensive and reliable guide to organisational theory currently available. What is needed is a text that will give a good idea of the breadth and complexity of this important subject, and this is precisely what McAuley, Duberley and Johnson have provided. They have done some sterling service in bringing together the very diverse strands of workRead MoreStephen P. Robbins Timothy A. Judge (2011) Organizational Behaviour 15th Edition New Jersey: Prentice Hall393164 Words   |  1573 Pages91 4 Emotions and Moods 97 What Are Emotions and Moods? 98 The Basic Emotions 100 †¢ The Basic Moods: Positive and Negative Affect 100 †¢ The Function of Emotions 102 †¢ Sources of Emotions and Moods 103 Emotional Labor 108 Affective Events Theory 110 Emotional Intelligence 112 The Case for EI 113 †¢ The Case Against EI 114 †¢ Emotion Regulation 115 OB Applications of Emotions and Moods 115 Selection 116 †¢ Decision Making 116 †¢ Creativity 116 †¢ Motivation 117 †¢ Leadership 117 †¢ Negotiation 117

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Brand Positioning and Repositioning Free Essays

Research Proposal # 1 Name of The Research Proposal: Brand Positioning Repositioning Brand Positioning In marketing, Positioning has come to mean the process by which marketers try to create an image or identity in the minds of their target market for its product, brand, or organization. Generally, the Brand positioning process involves: 1. Defining the market in which the product or brand will compete (who the relevant buyers are) 2. We will write a custom essay sample on Brand Positioning and Repositioning or any similar topic only for you Order Now Identifying the attributes (also called dimensions) that define the product ‘space’ 3. Collecting information from a sample of customers about their perceptions of each product on the relevant attributes 4. Determine each product’s share of mind 5. Determine each product’s current location in the product space 6. Determine the target market’s preferred combination of attributes (referred to as an ideal vector) 7. Examine the fit between: oThe position of your product oThe position of the ideal vector 8. Position. Characteristics of Brand Positioning Brand positioning strategy is important to develop in order to get to number one in a customer’s mind for your products or services. If you don’t develop a plan, customers won’t think about you when they go to make a purchase. This is sure to lead to low sales and, ultimately, business failure. Here are some characteristics of brand positioning strategy that anyone can use for business: Unique Benefits What benefits does a customer gain from buying your product or services? It’s not enough to develop a generic benefits list that all of your competitors offer. What unique benefits do you offer? This takes diligent research of the competition, as well as prospective customers. Your brand positioning strategy has to revolve around your customers, and what they will benefit from a relationship with your business. Otherwise, they’ll go to the competition, where they perceive they can get the most for their money. Quality Products or Services The Internet has made it easy for customers to get low prices, and harder for you as a home based business owner to beat larger competitors. However, you can still occupy a higher position over large service firms and product stores by building a brand image that highlights quality products or services. For example, if you’re a freelancer, you may not be able to compete on price with freelancers from other countries. However, if you’re known as a freelancer who offers quality services, you’ll gain a higher brand position than low-priced competitors. You might even be able to charge higher prices for higher quality services, and the higher price may help build that perception that you’re offering quality, whereas your competitors are not. Great Features You need to think through the features of your products or services that would make customers choose you in the first place, and use it in all of your advertising strategy. Take the time to write a product or service description for everything you offer. Cross out the ones that don’t meet the threshold of a great feature. Even if you only have one or two points about your product or service that qualifies, you can use that to differentiate yourself from the competition and boost sales. For example, if you’re selling a home security system on Ebay, it’s not enough to highlight the fact that it comes with 4 cameras and a DVR. Every similar home security system does, and your customers have no reason to buy from you, rather than someone else on Ebay. However, you could highlight that the security system ends images in real time to your email. Now your product is more compelling to consider, and you’ll get more sales, even from a competitor that offers a cheaper price. Problem Solver A brand positioning strategy that works well, especially during hard economic times, is positioning yourself as a problem-solver. You want to focus on offering the very best solutions for the problems your target market faces. You r customers will associate your ability to problem-solve with your ability to save them time, money and pain, which will keep them with you and not the competition. When you use these major characteristics of a brand position strategy, you can improve sales and your financial bottom line. If you don’t take the time to work on a strategy, your business won’t do as well, and your marketing efforts will be counter-productive. Types of beverage Water Drinking water or potable water is water of sufficiently high quality that it can be consumed or used without risk of immediate or long term harm. In most developed countries, the water supplied to households, commerce and industry is all of drinking water standard, even though only a very small proportion is actually consumed or used in food preparation. Over large parts of the world, humans have inadequate access to potable water and use sources contaminated with disease vectors, pathogens or unacceptable levels of dissolved chemicals or suspended solids. Such water is not potable and drinking or using such water in food preparation leads to widespread acute and chronic illnesses and is a major cause of death in many countries. Reduction of waterborne diseases is a major public health goal in developing countries. Alcoholic beverages An alcoholic beverage is a drink that contains ethanol, commonly known as alcohol (although in chemistry the definition of â€Å"alcohol† includes many other compounds). Beer has been a part of human culture for 8000 years. [1] In Germany, Ireland, the United Kingdom, and many other European countries, drinking beer (and other alcoholic beverages) in a local bar or pub is a cultural tradition. [2] Non-alcoholic beverages Non-alcoholic beverages are drinks that usually contain alcohol, such as beer and wine, but contain less than 0. 5% alcohol by volume. This category includes low-alcohol beer, non-alcoholic wine, and apple cider. Soft drinks The name â€Å"soft drink† specifies a lack of alcohol by way of contrast to the term â€Å"hard drink† and the term â€Å"drink†, the latter of which is nominally neutral but often carries connotations of alcoholic content. Beverages like colas, sparkling water, iced tea, lemonade, squash, and fruit punch are among the most common types of soft drinks, while hot chocolate, hot tea, coffee, milk, tap water, alcohol, and milkshakes do not fall into this classification. Many carbonated soft drinks are optionally available in versions sweetened with sugars or with non-caloric sweeteners. Hot beverages A hot beverage is any beverage which is normally served heated. This may be through the addition of a heated liquid, such as water or milk, or by directly heating the beverage itself. Some examples of hot beverages are: †¢Coffee-based beverages oCafe au lait oCappuccino oCoffee oEspresso oFrappe oFlavored coffees (mocha etc. ) oLatte †¢Hot chocolate †¢Hot cider oMulled cider †¢Gluhwein †¢Tea-based beverages oFlavored teas (chai etc. ) oGreen tea oPearl milk tea oTea Herbal teas oYerba Mate †¢Roasted grain beverages oSanka Miscellanea Some substances may be called either food or drink, and accordingly may be eaten with a spoon or drunk, depending upon their thickness and solutes. †¢Buttermilk †¢Soup †¢Yogurt Beverage industries in Bangladesh Bangladesh Beverage Industry: In Bangladesh the beverage industries a re playing a great role in the economy. The beverage industries involves those companies and products that are given below, The soft drinks market in Bangladesh consists mainly of seven companies. 1. Abdul Monem Limited (Coca-Cola, Sprite, Fanta). . Agriculture Marketing Company Limited (Pran). 3. Akij Group (Mojo, Lemu, Frutika). 4. Global Beverage Limited (Virgin). 5. Globe Soft Drinks Limited (Uro Cola, Uro Lemon). 6. Partex Beverage Limited (RC Cola, Lychena). 7. Transcom Beverage (Pepsi, 7up, Mirinda). Of these, Pran and Mojo are the only local brands. Coca-Cola, with its three varieties, namely, the cola-flavored Coca-Cola, the clear-flavored Sprite and the orange-flavored Fanta, is the number one soft drink producer in Bangladesh, as well as all over the world. Closing in on Coke is rival Pepsi. Pepsi is one of the oldest brands in Bangladesh. Pepsi first arrived in Dhaka in 1976 with the cola-flavored Pepsi, the clear-flavored 7up, the orange-flavored Mirinda and later introduced the mango-flavored Slice. Pran, on the other hand, started with jam, jelly and pickle. In 1995, it started producing mango bottled juice, and is currently operating all over the country. Virgin is renowned worldwide through its brand name. It was introduced in our country by Global Beverages Ltd. RC Cola entered the Bangladesh market in 1997, and was the first to introduce the cloudy lemon flavor. It has not been long since Akij group brought out Mojo and Lemu. They have already gained huge popularity. The recent success of Akij group is Frutika, which delivers the promise of no preservatives. Characteristics of beverage that constitute brand There should have some unique characteristics of particular product to constitute as brand in the market. A product should have some feature that gives value to the consumer. Brand attributes consist of ‘bits’ of information that are linked to a brand name in consumer memory and that, when combined with the brand name, make up brand’s image. Product attributes are the benefits of products, and these Benefits are the surface means used in advertisement and promotion offer to connect the brand with a motivation which influence brand attitude. Perceived quality is defined as the consumer’s judgment about a product’s overall excellence or superiority. Attributes, Taste/Flavor, Digestion, Calorie Content, Sugar Content, Pungency, Price, Color, Hygiene, Brand Image and Power of Freshness were taken into consideration for constituting brand. How to cite Brand Positioning and Repositioning, Papers

Sunday, May 3, 2020

Performance Essay Example For Students

Performance Essay I could interpret a lot of repeated sounds and notes during this recital. Depending on the song the performer was playing determined the tempo. For instance, at some par TTS of the songs where it was supposed to be fun and happy, the tempo would be relatively fast with a lot of short notes. When the song was trying to portray a more serious tone the music would play slower with a lot of longer notes. Although there was two instruments bee g played, the violin and piano, the texture was monophonic. The violin was prominent a ND the piano Just accented the violins notes. The melody was repetitive and full of energy an d the harmony was dissonant. This type of music does not really fit into the type of music I am used to listening to. I enjoy rap and hip hop. Rap and hip hop are a more free and fun kind of genre and vi loins usually produce a more serious or sad kind of sound. Although I am familiar with this type of music. I have played the violin for five years so it was definitely enjoyable to listen to. This concert made me miss playing the violin and made me remember all of the things I el earned while playing it. For instance, you have to hold the violin a certain way and it was all says difficult and uncomfortable to me. Another thing I remembered was the bow was ma De out of horse string and you had to tighten the bow before playing and put rosin on it and w hen you were done you had to loosen it before putting it away. After reading all the information from this course, it has definitely changed the way I listen to music. There is a lot more to listen for than Just the sound you hear. From HTH particular concert I noticed how the violinist wanted a more serious and sad tone he would play the G and D chord which were a lower tone pitch. While playing those strings, he utilize the whole bow, making longer sounds. When he emphasized the more happy s MUSIC Recital Essay By Lillian

Friday, March 27, 2020

Sociolinguistics free essay sample

It is the geographical boundary or delineation of a certain linguistic feature, e. g. the pronunciation of a vowel, the meaning of a word, or use of some syntactic feature. We will write a custom essay sample on Sociolinguistics or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Major dialects are typically demarcated by whole bundles of isoglosses, e. g. the Benrath line that distinguishes High German from the other West Germanic languages; or the La Spezia-Rimini Line which divides the Northern Italian dialects from Central ones. One of the most well-known isoglosses is the Centum-Satem isogloss. A major isogloss in American English has been identified as the North-Midland isogloss, which demarcates numerous linguistic features, including the Northern Cities vowel shift, the isogloss separates rather than connects points of equal language. An isogloss refers to a specific type of language border. It is the geographical boundary or delineation of a certain linguistic feature, e. g. the pronunciation of a vowel, the meaning of a word, or use of some syntactic feature. Major dialects are typically demarcated by whole bundles of isoglosses, e. . the Benrath line that distinguishes High German from the other West Germanic languages; or the La Spezia-Rimini Line which divides the Northern Italian dialects from Central ones. One of the most well-known isoglosses is the Centum-Satem isogloss. 1. In DIALECT geography, an area within which a feature is used predominantly or exclusively. Such a feature (phonological, morphological, syntactic, semantic, lexical, or other) usually contras ts with some similar feature in adjoining areas. Thus, some native speakers of English pronounce /r/ after a vowel, as in barn, hard, car, while others do not: in the US this postvocalic /r/ is normally present in the Chicago area but absent in the Boston area. Such distinct areas are isoglosses. 2. More commonly, the line on a dialect map which bounds the area of a certain usage. In England, an isogloss that stretches from the mouth of the Severn to Portsmouth separates the area of initial spoken /v/ from that of /f/, as in vinger/finger, Vriday/Friday, the v-forms being south-west of the line. No two isoglosses coincide exactly; there is always a transition area of partial overlapping. Social dialect: Another important axis of differentiation is that of social strata. In many localities, dialectal differences are connected with social classes, educational levels, or both. More-highly educated speakers and, often, those belonging to a higher social class tend to use more features belonging to the standard language, whereas the original dialect of the region is better preserved in the speech of the lower and less-educated classes. In large urban centres, innovations unknown in the former dialect of the region frequently develop. Thus, in cities the social stratification of dialects is especially relevant and far-reaching, whereas in rural areas, with a conservative way of life, the traditional geographic dialectal differentiation prevails. Educational differences between speakers strongly affect the extent of their vocabulary. In addition, practically every profession has its own expressions, which include the technical terminology and sometimes also the casual words or idioms peculiar to the group. Slang too is characterized mainly by a specific vocabulary and is much more flexible than an ordinary dialect, as it is subject to fashion and depends strongly on the speaker’s age group. Slang—just as a professional dialect—is used mainly by persons who are in a sense bidialectal; i. e. , they speak some other dialect or the standard language, in addition to slang. Dialectal differences also often run parallel with the religious or racial division of the population. Regional dialect: A speech pattern that alerts the listener that you are from a specific region within the United States. It may include non-standard pronunciation, grammar, resonance, pitch, rate of speech, and differences in vocabulary. A few examples of regional dialects include the New York and Southern American dialects. A regional language is a language spoken in an area of a nation state, whether it be a small area, a federal state or province, or some wider area. Usually applies to the vocabulary, grammar, and pronunciation characteristic of specific geographic localities or social classes. The vernacular is the informal everyday language spoken by a people. A dialect is distinguished by its vocabulary, grammar, and pronunciation (phonology, including prosody). Where a distinction can be made only in terms of pronunciation, the term accent is appropriate, not dialect (although in common usage, dialect and accent are usually synonymous). A regional dialect is not a distinct language but a variety of a language spoken in a particular area of a country. Some regional dialects have been given traditional names which mark them out as being significantly different from standard varieties spoken in the same place. Some examples are Hillbilly English (from the Appalachians in the USA) and Geordie (from Newcastle upon Tyne in the UK). A standard language (also standard dialect, standardized dialect, or standardised dialect) is a particular variety of a language that has been given either legal or quasi-legal status. As it is usually the form promoted in schools and the media, it is usually considered by speakers of the language to be more correct in some sense than other dialects. Usually, but not always, based on the tongue of a capital city, a standard language is defined by the selection of certain regional and class markers, and the rejection of others. This is the version of a language that is typically taught to learners of the language as a foreign language, and most texts written in that language follow its spelling and grammar norms. standard written language is sometimes termed by the German word Schriftsprache A Standard languages arise when a certain dialect begins to be used in written form, normally throughout a broader area than that of the dialect itself. The ways in which this language is used—e. g. , in administrative matters, literature, and economic life—lead to the minimization of linguistic variation. The social prestige attached to the speech of the richest, most powerful, and most highly educated members of a society transforms their language into a model for others; it also contributes to the elimination of deviating linguistic forms. Dictionaries and grammars help to stabilize linguistic norms, as do the activity of scholarly institutions and, sometimes, governmental intervention. The base dialect for a country’s standard language is very often the original dialect of the capital and its environs—in France, Paris; in England, London; in Russia, Moscow. Or the base may be a strong economic and cultural centre—in Italy, Florence. Or the language may be a combination of several regional dialects, as are German and Polish. Even a standard language that was originally based on one local dialect changes, however, as elements of other dialects infiltrate into it over the years. The actual development in any one linguistic area depends on historical events. Sometimes even the distribution of standard languages may not correspond to the dialectal situation. Dutch and Flemish dialects are a part of the Low German dialectal area, which embraces all of northern Germany, as well as The Netherlands and part of Belgium. In one part of the dialectal area, however, the standard language is based on High German, and in the other part the standard language is Dutch or Flemish, depending on the nationality of the respective populations. In the United States, where there is no clearly dominant political or cultural centre—such as London or Paris—and where the territory is enormous, the so-called standard language shows perceptible regional variations in pronunciation, grammar, and vocabulary. All standard languages are in any case spoken in a variety of accents, though sometimes one particular accent (e. g. Received Pronunciation in Britain) may be most closely associated with the standard because of its shared social or educational origins. In most developed countries, the majority of the population has an active (speaking, writing) or at least passive (understanding) command of the standard language. Very often the rural population, and not uncommonly the lower social strata of the urban p opulation as well, are in reality bidialectal. They speak their maternal dialect at home and with friends and acquaintances in casual contacts, and they use the standard language in more formal situations. Even the educated urban population in some regions uses the so-called colloquial language informally. In the German-, Czech-, and Slovene-speaking areas of middle Europe, for example, a basically regional dialect from which the most striking local features have been eliminated is spoken. The use of this type of language is supported by psychological factors, such as feelings of solidarity with a certain region and pride in its traditions or the relaxed mood connected with informal behaviour. . Code-switching is a linguistics term denoting the concurrent use of more than one language, or language variety, in conversation. Multilinguals, people who speak more than one language, sometimes use elements of multiple languages in conversing with each other. Thus, code-switching is the syntactically and phonologically appropriate use of more than one linguistic variety. Code-switching is distinct from other language contact phenomena, such as borrowing, pidgins and creoles, loan translation (calques), and language transfer (language interference). Speakers form and establish a pidgin language when two or more speakers who do not speak a common language form an intermediate, third language. On the other hand, speakers practice code-switching when they are each fluent in both languages. Code mixing is a thematically related term, but the usage of the terms code-switching and code-mixing varies. Some scholars use either term to denote the same practice, while others apply code-mixing to denote the formal linguistic properties of said language-contact phenomena, and code-switching to denote the actual, spoken usages by multilingual persons. In the 1940s and the 1950s many scholars called code-switching a sub-standard language usage. Since the 1980s, however, most scholars have recognized it is a normal, natural product of bilingual and multilingual language use. In popular usage outside the field of linguistics the term code-switching is sometimes used to refer to relatively stable informal mixtures of two languages, such as Spanglish or Franponais, or to refer to dialect or style-shifting, such as that practiced by speakers of African American Vernacular English as they move from less formal to more formal settings. Code-switching refers to alternating between one or more languages or dialects. It also occurs within a particular language. We use different forms of expression depending on the person we are speaking to and where we are speaking to that person. There are different degrees of formality and informality. Many times in English there is more than one way of pronouncing. Some people whose first language is English decide how they are going to speak by the context within which they are speaking. Code-switching is a term in linguistics referring to alternating between one or more languages or dialects. Code-switching is the practice of moving between variations of languages in different contexts. This article explains the history of code-switching, explores important literature on the subject, and discusses approaches to language response in the classroom. Code-switching is the practice of moving between variations of languages in different contexts. Everyone who speaks has learned to code-switch depending on the situation and setting. In an educational context, code-switching is defined as the practice of switching between a primary and a secondary language or discourse. In a diglossic situation, some topics and situations are better suited to one language over another. Joshua Fishman proposes a domain-specific code-switching model (later refined by Blom and Gumperz) wherein bilingual speakers choose which code to speak depending on where they are and what they are discussing. For example, a child who is a bilingual Spanish-English speaker might speak Spanish at home and English in class, but Spanish at recess. Code switching refers to the switching between two or more different languages in a single conversation. This occurs when a bilingual person uses both languages to communicate with another person. It happens consciously as well as sub-consciously. In most cases both the people in the conversation are conversant with both languages. The switch from one language to the other can last for a single phrase to a few sentences. The switch is made mainly due to the mood of the speaker or he/she might feel that a particular part of the conversation can be best conveyed by switching to another language. The switch might also happen because the person does not know the appropriate word or phrase in a particular language. Code switching happens very often in ethnic minority communities in different countries. E. g. It is prevalent in the Indian and Hispanic communities in the United States. Pidgin is often confused with code switching but it differs because it refers to the mixing up of two different languages in a single word. In 1977, Carol Myers-Scotton and William Ury identified code-switching as the â€Å"use of two or more linguistic varieties in the same conversation or interaction. † Scholars use different names for various types of code-switching. Citation needed] Intersentential switching occurs outside the sentence or the clause level (i. e. at sentence or clause boundaries). Intra-sentential switching occurs within a sentence or a clause. Tag-switching is the switching of either a tag phrase or a word, or both, from language-B to language-A, (common intra-sentential switches). Intra-word switching occurs within a word, itself, such as at a morpheme boundary. Patois is any language t hat is considered nonstandard, although the term is not formally defined in linguistics. It can refer to pidgins, creoles, dialects, and other forms of native or local speech, but not commonly to jargon or slang, which are vocabulary-based forms of cant. Class distinctions are embedded in the term, drawn between those who speak patois and those who speak the standard or dominant language used in literature and public speaking, They are synonymous, but patois implies that it is the dialect of a region or a group (such as thieves), differing in various respects from the standard language of the country. — ORIGIN French, ‘rough speech’. The slang or informal speech used by a particular social

Friday, March 6, 2020

Free Essays on Childhood Poverty In US

In America, the issue of childhood poverty is in need of one of the greatest humanitarian efforts in history. One in five children of America live in poverty, with percentages in New York and California reaching above 25%, and the states of Texas, Florida, Massachusetts and Illinois all are above the 20% marker. 10 more states fall in line with those mentioned previously(Schrerrer). Such a decline in the standards of living of our children is even more dire when compared to rates of other industrialized nations. Countries of western Europe have childhood poverty rates that are considerably less troublesome, and services that are offered to people in those countries reflect a different attitude towards those children in need of care they obviously cannot provide for themselves. The people of America use have a system known as welfare which is used to â€Å"cushion† those families that require aid, or lost a job. In other countries, benefit packages are considerably higher i n amount of money they provide, and in the wide array of services that are provided. We must examine the cause of these issues, and later on it will be shown relevant to the overall cause of childhood poverty in America. The first of these is the values and morals taught to us by our forefathers, which have perhaps the single greatest impact on our viewpoints today. We, as a culture, have many values that we utilize on a daily basis. These values are often the hardest to point out in members of our own culture due to the fact that our actions that are pertinent to this behavior are automatic. When compared to Values of other countries, apparent correlation can be made between the state of that countries youth and it’s core system of values. Another plausible reason for the grotesque level of children living in poor conditions in this country which is also directly related to values of a culture is the amount of and quality of care provided. This care can b... Free Essays on Childhood Poverty In US Free Essays on Childhood Poverty In US In America, the issue of childhood poverty is in need of one of the greatest humanitarian efforts in history. One in five children of America live in poverty, with percentages in New York and California reaching above 25%, and the states of Texas, Florida, Massachusetts and Illinois all are above the 20% marker. 10 more states fall in line with those mentioned previously(Schrerrer). Such a decline in the standards of living of our children is even more dire when compared to rates of other industrialized nations. Countries of western Europe have childhood poverty rates that are considerably less troublesome, and services that are offered to people in those countries reflect a different attitude towards those children in need of care they obviously cannot provide for themselves. The people of America use have a system known as welfare which is used to â€Å"cushion† those families that require aid, or lost a job. In other countries, benefit packages are considerably higher i n amount of money they provide, and in the wide array of services that are provided. We must examine the cause of these issues, and later on it will be shown relevant to the overall cause of childhood poverty in America. The first of these is the values and morals taught to us by our forefathers, which have perhaps the single greatest impact on our viewpoints today. We, as a culture, have many values that we utilize on a daily basis. These values are often the hardest to point out in members of our own culture due to the fact that our actions that are pertinent to this behavior are automatic. When compared to Values of other countries, apparent correlation can be made between the state of that countries youth and it’s core system of values. Another plausible reason for the grotesque level of children living in poor conditions in this country which is also directly related to values of a culture is the amount of and quality of care provided. This care can b...

Wednesday, February 19, 2020

Immigrant's success Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Immigrant's success - Essay Example The Ly family is a refugee family; but they own the neighborhood bakery which had earned a revenue of as much as $44 million now. Lester is a Cuban refugee who escaped successfully to America from Cuba by windsurfing. I believe they succeeded because they were hardworking, confident and purposeful. To succeed in America, one of the primary keys to success is to be hardworking. There are four points to ensure that an individual works hard. First, a hardworking person takes fewer breaks than others. For example, Lester worked at a windsurfing rental booth by day while attending high school at night. He was busy the whole day and took very few breaks to get more experience and knowledge. Second, hardworking people do more things than others. For instance, Fatemeh Mizbani started at 6:30 a.m. and called it a day at 5:30 in the afternoon. She not only worked longer than other teachers; but also spent her lunch break helping her students. This way, she earned her students and work matesâ⠂¬â„¢ admiration. Third, hardworking means the worker does not care about the kind of job they get. For example, Ly families worked as laborers, handymen, seamstresses, and house-cleaners. Because they did some low-paying jobs, they still earned enough money to start a new business. The last one was working hard to get a good education. For instance, Dr. Erick Miranda graduated from Harvard and then worked at the L.A. County/USC emergency medical center. His words showed the importance of hard work. He said, â€Å"No matter where you come from or how poor you are, there is a path open to you here.† But you need to work hard to get on that path. As evident, hard work assists in getting more knowledge or experience, as well as respect from others. Another key to success, aside from hard work, is confidence in oneself. In contemporary times, there are still a lot of hardworking immigrants who do not succeed because they do not have self-confidence. Every successful man is confid ent and those aspiring to succeed must determine the secrets to gain self-confidence. Confidence means that you believe there is always a road to success; as well as to believe in one’s powers, determination and persistence. When talking to people or demonstrating something to others, one must be confident so that people will trust one’s words or the products being endorsed. One should be able to prepare well through study or research. For instance, the 17 year old boy named Lester was able to escape to America by windsurfing for more than 80 miles. He escaped alone because he believed in his plan and his sailing skill and he succeeded. Consequently, by arriving in America against immense odds, he became famous because of his marvelous confidence. As such, confidence would enable one to achieve things that have never been tried before. Finally, by being hardworking and confident, there is only one more important thing that is needed: setting a goal. If one does not hav e a goal, one would not have any direction just like a waterweed which floats on the river. One must have a clear idea on the goal that is to be set. The goal is the most important thing one wants to do in the future. The goal is the terminal point in a race; so one should not stop trying to get it. If one stops for a while, other people who have the same goal might surpass and one might eventually lose. Goals that are to be set should be attainable. There is a big refugee family named Ly family who